Citation and Reference Guideline


Visio Dei publishes research-based scientific articles because the reference sources use research-based primary sources as well. Visio Dei also emphasizes the novelty value of published articles. This is also reflected in the reference sources, no later than the last 10 years.

The references are journal articles (research results), proceedings articles, dissertations, theses, undergraduate theses, and books published by official publishers. Other sources such as articles and news on the website can be referred to as needed.

Of all these sources, 80% are scientific journal articles and 20% are from other sources.


Direct Citation

Direct quotations of less than forty words are written using "two quotation marks" and are included in paragraphs.

The format for writing the source of the citation consists of the author's last name, year of publication, and the page number.

For example: (Spradley, 1997, p. 35).

If the direct quote consists of forty words and above, then the quote is written in one block of writing, and placed in one paragraph alone, the left margin goes in five taps with one space between lines.

For example:

James Spradley (1997, p. 35) said that the informant "is a native speaker" OR "The informant is a native speaker," (Spradley, 1997, p. 35).

Example of a direct quote of more than forty words:

James Spradley (1997) provides an understanding of informants. He said:

Informants are native speakers. Informants were asked by the ethnographer to speak in their own language or dialect. The informant provides a model for the ethnographer to imitate, the ethnographer wants to learn to use the native language in the way that the informant does. Finally, informants are sources of information; literally, they become teachers to the ethnographer. (Spradley, 1997, p. 35).

Indirect Citation

The format for writing indirect citation sources consists of: (Author's Last Name, Year).

For example: (Spradley, 1997).

If the author's (last) name is mentioned first, only the year of publication is written in brackets.

For example: Spradley (1997) suggests a step-by-step path for ethnographic research.


All references listed in the Bibliography are those quoted in the body of the article. To guarantee this, the author is required to use the Mendeley application in writing citations which can be accessed at


The following are the elements that need to be included in the citation in the Mendeley application for publication purposes in Visio Dei. Other elements can be listed as needed.

Journal Articles

  1. Type: Journal Article
  2. No Title: replace with the article title using “Capitalize Each Word” (use a capital letter at the beginning of each word). If it is automatically input using the Mendeley importer, please adjust it.
  3. Authors: Write down all authors' names. Last name first, then a comma, space, first name, and continuation
  4. Journal: write the journal name using “Capitalize Each Word”.
  5. Year: year of publication
  6. Volume: volume
  7. Issue: number of volumes
  8. Pages: article page in journal, start page – end page
  9. URL: Link to the article on the website, include the URL if the article does not have a DOI
  10. DOI: DOI article without a section, just DOI for example “10.35909/visiodei.v2i1.68”

Proceeding Article

  1. Type: Conference Proceeding
  2. No Title: replace with the article title
  3. Authors: (all) author's name
  4. Title: title of proceedings/name of the scientific forum
  5. Year: year of publication
  6. Pages: isi halaman artikel pada prosiding, halaman awal – halaman akhir
  7. City: city of the publisher
  8. Publisher: the publisher name

Skripsi, Tesis, Disertasi

  1. Type: Thesis
  2. No Title: thesis title 
  3. Authors: Name of the author  
  4. Year: publication year
  5. City: the city of the university/institute/college  
  6. University: the university/institute/college name


  1. Type: Book
  2. No Title : title of the book
  3. Authors: author (s) name 
  4. Year: year of publication
  5. City: year of the publisher 
  6. Publisher: name of the publisher

Book Section

  1. Type: Book Section
  2. No Title: the article title  
  3. Authors: author (s) name 
  4. Book: the book title
  5. Year: year of publication
  6. City: city of the publisher
  7. Publisher: the publisher name

Web Page

  1. Type: Web page
  2. No Title: the article title 
  3. Authors: the author's name 
  4. Publication: name owner of the website
  5. Year: year
  6. Date Accessed: date of accessing the article
  7. URL: article link on the website